Several months may be required to process an application from abroad; therefore, foreign nationals are urged to submit complete application materials as early as possible, but no more than one year in advance. The application must include the application form, two official transcripts (including proof of degree where applicable) from all colleges and universities attended, an official score report on an approved entrance test, a non-refundable application fee, and three letters of recommendation. If the original language of the academic record is not English, a certified English translation must accompany the official documents. Recommendations from teachers who are familiar with higher education programs in the United States are advantageous. International applicants, for whom English is not their native language, must submit Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) scores in addition to scores on an approved entrance examination. The application of a student from abroad, complete with supporting materials, must be in the Office of Graduate Admissions by the required deadline for each term. Departments may have earlier application deadlines which take precedence over those established by the Graduate School. Applicants should consult the departments for their specific deadlines.